by Janie VandeBerg
Eastern Washington University
While researching this bibliography, I attempted to find as many sources and references online as possible. Although, from an academic standpoint, online sources are not as readily acceptable as “library sources”, there is some rationale in utilizing the internet as the primary source of research materials for the public school teacher. Unfortunately, we do not have the time, nor fmancial ability to utilize purchased and/or academic library sources for either teaching of research. Public school teachers are (by requirement) instructors of a wide-array of information. Our job is to convey that information in a meaningful way to our students, not to dig (in depth) on one subject. Therefore, I have attempted to create a list of materials that would be useful to a public school teacher of history. A list that is fmancially easy to obtain, yet is historically and pedagogically relevant to the topic. All the materials on this list are available online. Some are books available for purchase, but most are free, public domain, primary source materials which are easily accessed and used within the classroom.
Books & Online Excerpts
Bloch, Ruth H., (2003). Gender and Morality in Anglo-American Culture, 1650-1800. U.S. : University of California Press.
Collection of essays on gender and family relationships. Although the text takes a rather radical feminist perspective, much of the details describe what daily life in the Early Republic period were like for women. This is a good source for teacher background, but readability is too advanced for use in the classroom. –
Boorstin, Daniel Joseph, (1988). Americans: The National Experience. U.S. : Vintage Books.
A discussion of patterns of life in the Early Republic period. Boorstin does a great job of discussing daily life, travel, job opportunities, and westward expansion. He uses many anecdotes and stories to express the social philosophy of the times. This is an excellent book for both teacher research and for use (in exce~pr tibr nat for classroom study by students.
Crevecoeur, Hector St. John, (1782). Letters from an American Farmer, Hector St. John Crevecoeur, 1782 . Retrieved June, 2004 from Historical Text Archive,http://historicaltextarchive.com/books.php?op=viewbook&bookid=32.
An EXCELLENT resource for understanding daily life in late eighteenth century Nantucket . Because the entire text is online, students are able to use this resource for further research in the manners and custom of the Early Republic . In particular, the letters about manners and customs, as well as Crevecoeur’s account of the whale industry would be of grat value to students stuyding Early Republic period.
Demos, John. (2004). Circles and Lines: The Shape of Life in Early America (The William E. Massey Sr. Lectures in the History of American Civilization). U.S. : Cambridge University Press.
Damos attempts to attribute much of American civilization’&customs to cyclical patterns. Although he makes many viable arguments, the text is far to “academic” for use in the classroom. However, for use as a lecture source, many of his ideas might stimulate student thought and discussion. This text spans a much broader period of time than the Early Republic , but does an admirable job at giving sociological reasoning for many of the customs and patterns of early American life.
Francis E. Blake, (1915). “Diary Kept by Elizabeth Fuller,” History of the Town of Princeton [online excerpt] Princeton , Massachusetts : Town, 1: 303-11. Retrieved June, 2004 from History Matters, httn:// historvmatters.gmu.edu/d/5824.
This online excerpt is a personal diary of a 15 year old girl in rural Massachusetts during 1790-1791. This is an EXCELLENT source for students to delve further into the daily life of the Early Republic period. As a primary source document, students would be able to analyze and expand on the differences between today’s youth and the youth of the period. The diary allows students to expand upon the brief entries and form an opinion of rural life in the 1790s.
Witness Accounts of the Atlantic Slave Trade. [online excerpt] Africans in America : Alexander Falconbridge’s account of the slave trade. U. Little Brown & Company. Retrieved June, 2004 from PBS Online, www.pbs.org/wgbh/aialpartl/1h281t.html.
This excerpt from Alexander Falconbridge discusses the conditions of African slaves on the Atlantic voyage to America . Although not specifically associated with “daily life” in the Early Republic period, students tend to associate slavery with early American life. This primary source information source could be used as a supplemental reading in a classroom studying the culture of the Early Republic .
Marder, Daniel, (ed.) (1972). Incidents of the Insurrection-The Story of Hugh Henry Brackenridge, The Trial ofMamachtage. [online excerpts]. U.S. : College and University Press Services, Inc. Retrieved June, 2004 from National Humanities Center , http://www.nhc.rtp.us/pds/livingrev/expansion/text4/brackenridge.pdf
This is a first-hand account of the trial of Mamachtage, an Amerindian who murdered a settler named Smith. This would be an EXCELLENT reading for a 9 th grade class and could promote further discussion on the influence of Americans in the Ohio Valley , on the Amerindian population and the differences in philosophical thought between the respective cultures.
Munger, Hiram, (1861). The Life and Religious Experiences ofHiram Munger [online excerpt] “The Treatment of the Help in Those Days Was Cruel”: Hiram Munger Remembers Factory Life. Chicopee Falls , Massachusetts : Published By the Author), pp. 10-15. Retrieved June, 2004 from History Matters,http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5830.
A first-hand account of working conditions in a grist-mill of Massachusetts . Students will gain an understanding of the beginnings of industrialization in America as well as a comparison of working conditions in the “industrial revolution” of America . An EXCELLENT resource for furthering student inquiry into the daily life of the Early Republic .
Nylander, Jane C., (1994). Our Own Snug Fireside: Images of the New England Home, 17601860. U.S. : Yale University Press.
A good resource for students to use when researching the Early Republic period. The text uses diaries, letters and artifacts to discuss early American life. The illustrations are a great resource for 9 th grade students. In addition, certain portions of the text might be used as class readings or for additional lecture material on daily life.
Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa. (1789) The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African. Written by Himself [online excerpt] “Is It Not Enough that We Are Torn From Our Country and Friends?: Olaudah Equiano Describes the Horrors of the Middle Passage, 1780s. 2 vols. ( London : Published By the Author) Vol. 1, 70-88. Retrieved June, 2004 from History Matters, http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6372 .
A first-hand account of the crossing of the middle passage by slave ships. Students would find this reading a provocative and interesting read on the treatment of African slaves during the Early Republic period.
Pickford, Christopher B., Cooper, Carolyn C., Rux, Sandra L., & Lamar, Howard Roberts, (Eds.) (2003). Voices of the New Republic: Connecticut Towns 1800-1832: What They Said (Memoirs of the Connecticut Academy of Arts & Sciences) Vol. 1. New Haven , Ct: The Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences.
First hand accounts of life in Connecticut in 1800. The Academy sent questionnaires to 107 towns and the resulting responses are documented in this volume. This is a great resource for examining the daily life and practices of citizens of Connecticut . Although the writing might be difficult for high school students to interpret, it is an excellent firsthand account and would fit into the curriculum nicely. Note: There is a second volume of modern essays on the first volumes commentary.
Rowson, Susanna Haswell, (1905). Charlotte Temple: A Tale of Truth, [online excerpt] “Shame Bows Her to the Earth”. Philadelphia : Funk and Wagnalls Co, vol.2, pp.3-10. Retrieved from History Matters, http:// historvmatters.gmu.edu/d/6515.
Students would find this excerpt a most exciting, interesting and provocative look at “love life” in the Early Republic . This book is described (at the site) as the first bestseller in America . Most students learn only of the “puritan ethic” and religious piety of the Early Americans. This reading would be an enjoyable read for students and allow them to reflect on the concept that humans, throughout time, are susceptible to the same urges, wants and needs as today’s societies.
Sloane, Eric, (2003). American Yesterday ( Americana ). U.S. : Dover Publications. Artifacts – pictures of different trades and items for Americana.
Using anecdotes and artifacts, Sloane attempts to show what life was like in early America . This is a good resource for students because of the readability of the text, as well as illustrations. Students would be able to research many of the “economic” life (jobs/careers) of early Americans.
Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher, (2001). The Age of Homespun: Objects and Stories in the Creation of an American Myth. U.S. : Alfred A. Knopf.
Ulrich attempts to discuss early America and the influence that textiles had on the lifestyles of both settlers and Amerindian groups. Much of the book centers around the Revolutionary period, but set the stage for the Early Republic period. The text is above 9 th grade level, but would be a goon teaching source for discussing early American life.
Vickers, Anita, (2002). The New Nation, 1783-1816: (American Popular Culture Through History). U.S. : Greenwood Press.
An analysis of early American popular culture in the Early Republic period. Vickers examines topics such as f ood , advertising, art, fashion , hobbies and travel. Students would find this book an easy read and highly entertaining. A good resource for further research on the period, and an EXCELLENT resource for teaching.
Connie Prairie Website, (n.d.). Transportation Developments in the Early Republic. Retrieved June, 2004 from History Online, httv://www.connerprairie.org/HistoryOnline/travel.html.
A discussion of early transportation and the development of transportations systems in the early 1800s. It includes references on the governments involvement and an excellent listing of the modes of transportation available. The document is easily read by high school students and a good resource for studying transportation in the Early Republic.
Gilman, Caroline, Howard, (1838). Recollections of a Southern Matron: Caroline Howard Gilman. Retrieved June, 2004 from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries, Documenting the American South, http://docsouth.unc.edu/gilman/gilman.httnl.
An extremely long (283 pages) online edition of Gilman’s life in Charleston , S.C. during the Early Republic . The length of the document does not allow for classroom reading in entirety. However, there are numerous sections which could be used as classroom readings – most specifically about interactions between white owners and slaves.
Rhode Island Supreme Court, (1820). 1820 Hile v. Webb divorce decree. Rhode Island Supreme Court at Providence . Vol 8, p427. Retrieved June, 2004 from Historical Text Archive, http://historicaltextarchive.com/sections.ohp?ov- – viewarticle&artid=172.
A divorce decree from 1820. Students would find this an interesting look into the lives of Americans in the Early Republic period. It describes the lack of financial and social responsibilities of the husband. The text is difficult to read for high school students because of the legal jargon as well as the time period. This document would be best used as a lecture discussion artifact.
Riley, F.L., (ed.) (1904). Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society v. VIII, Autiobiography of Gideron Lincecum, excerpts: 1793-1819. Retrieved June, 2004 from National Humanities Center , www.nhc.rtp.us/vds/livingrev/expansion/text2/lincecum.pdf.
An excellent autobiography detailing the life of a Georgia-born American. Discussions include Lincecum’s planting of the first cotton crop in Georgia and his travels through the Ohio Valley . Of particular valley are the accompanying photos and maps of this online excerpt. The document is long, 10 pages, however, students would be able to easily peruse it as a research tool for further investigation.
Sassi, Jonathan D., (1997). Religion in the Early Republic. Retrieved June, 2004 from http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/9156/RITER.HTM.
An academic paper on religion in the Early Republic period. A good teacher resource for information regarding the religious life and philosophies of the period, but not readable for high school students.
Smith, Venture, (1729-1805). A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture, a Native of Africa : But Resident above Sixty years in the Unites States of America . Related by Himself [electronic edition] Retrieved June, 2004 from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries, Documenting the American South,http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/venture/venture.html .
An EXCELLENT source on African Americans of the Early Republic period. Venture begins the tale with a first-hand account of tribal wars and the sale of Africans to an American slaver. He details the ship passage and then goes into detail about his economic pursuits in America – being bonded to a white man, yet free to pursue work and paying his “master” a portion of the earnings. Students would be interested in this account because it isn’t the stereotypical slave story of plantation life, but a detailed account of the concept of “bondage” in early America .
South Carolina Gazette, (1762, Sept 18). “Ran Off’ Notices of stray animals, a wife who ran off, runaway slaves. Retrieved June, 2004 from History Matters,http://historvmatters.gmu.edu/d/6705.
A column of notices from the South Carolina Gazette. As a primary source, students would find this useful to synthesize information about daily life.
Tyler, Royall, (1787). The Contrast: A Comedy Written in 5 Acts Written by a Citizen of the United States . [electronic edition]. Retrieved June, 2004 from University of Chicago , America in Western Civilization, http://www.nhc.rtv.us/ods/livingrev/predicaments/text4/contrast.pdf .
An EXCELLENT source for students to understand the life and times of the Early Republic . In an integrated curriculum, students could read aloud t he play, discuss concepts analyze vocabulary, and gain an understanding of the period.
University of Houston , College of Education , (2003). The First National Census. Retrieved June, 2004 from Digital History, online textbook, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article display.cfm?HHID=3.
Overview of what life was like in 1790 from an online textbook source. Easily read by high school, this is an excellent source for an overview of the Early American Period.
University of Houston , College of Education, (2003). The Roots ofAmerican Economic Growth. Retrieved June, 2004 from Digital History, online textbook, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article display.cfin?HHID=597.
Overview of the early economics of the American Republic . Students could easily read this text and gain understanding on trade and commerce practices of the period.
Washington D. C., 1800, (2001). Retrieved June, 2004 from Eyewitness to History, http://www.evewitnesstohistorv.com/cavital.htm.
An accounting, by Abigail Adams of what Washington D.C. was like in 1800 as well as her travel from Philadelphia to Washington . The format is a letter she wrote to her sister, with additional comments from the website author. The letter, both in primary source format and online text is a valuable resource for students to visualize what life was like in 1800, Washington D.C.
Ballard, Martha, (1785-1812). Martha Ballard’s Diary Online. Retrieved June, 2004 from Do History, http://dohistorv.orp/diary/index.html
An online, digitized copy of Martha Ballard’s diary. The diary pages, themselves are almost impossible to read. However, the website does a fantastic job of allowing students to understand how to read the diary. In addition, students are able to search the diary based on themes or stories, by date, or browse the diary. The most interesting aspect of the website is the “magic lens” which overlays today’s writing onto the diary so students can read the text. An incredible sight for understanding the culture and life of the period 1785-1812 from one woman’s perspective.
Gibson, Campbell, & Jung, Kay, (2002). Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States, (September 2002 Working Paper Series No. 56) Washington DC: US Census Bureau, Population Division. Retrieved June, 2004 from http://www.census.gov/vopulation/www/documentation/twps0056.html.
An EXCELLENT resource for analyzing population of the Early Republic period. Tables of information may be viewed for the time period, either by state or region or by race. This is a good resource for students to analyze population growth and trends of the period and to examine the changes in population growth with westward expansion.
Library of Congress. (n.d.). Religion and the Founding of the American Republic . [online exhibit]. Retrieved June, 2004 fromhttp://lcweb.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/reIO6.html.
An EXCELLENT source for students researching how religion was valued in the Early Republic . In addition to easily read text, there are primary sources on the topic of religion and the constitution and the Bill of Rights. When discussing the impact (or lack thereof) of religion o n the American Republic , this is an excellent resource.
Library of Congress. (n.d.) The First American West: The Ohio River Valley , 1750-1920. Retrieved June, 2004 from American Memory Archive, http://memorv.loc.gov/ammem/award99/icuhtml/fawhome.html.
An INCREDIBLE resource for studying the Ohio River Valley and the migration of Americans to the area in the Early Republic . There are 100’s of primary documents on this digitized website including maps of the period, letters, agricultural information, schooling, trade, etc. Students are easily able to search this archive for further study on specific topics of the time period and analyze important historical primary sources.
Monticello – The House of Thomas Jefferson. (n.d.) The Plantation : Lives. Retrieved June, 2004 from http://www.monticello.org/plantation/lives.html.
This site, in general, is a wonderful accounting of the life of Thomas Jefferson. Students are able to examine the structure of Monticello , examine primary source documents of Thomas Jefferson, examine documents pertaining to the daily running of the buildings and plantation, and read oral histories from the slaves owned by Jefferson .
National Humanities Center , (n.d.). Timeline: 1779-1823. America , Living the Revolution. Retrieved June, 2004 from www.nhc.rtv.us/pds/livingrev/timeline.pdf.
An EXCELLENT, 6-page timelines of the Early Republic period. The timeline not only gives all important events of the period which would influence the lives of Americans, but is illustrated with pictures. Students would find this an interesting and inquisitive tool for examining the effect major events of the time period had on early Americans.
Old Sturbridge Village , (2002). Online Virtual Tour, Sturbridge , Massachusetts . Retrieved June, 2004 from http://www.osv.org/
Sturbridge Village is a tourist attraction in Sturbridge , Massachusetts . It depicts a typical village of the Early Republic Period. The online site allows students to visit the village, virtually, and to learn about the daily life of its’ citizens – everything from housing to important holidays and cultural events.
Pinzler, Andrew, (2003). Early Republic Timeline, 1788-1824. Retrieved, June, 2004 from httt:// pinzler.com/ushistorv/timeline3.html.
EXCELLENT timeline of events, both U.S. and world during the Early Republic period. Students can use this timeline to contrast events on a global scale and the impact of one event on others.
Smithsonian National Museum of American History, (n.d.). Costume Collection, Women’s Dresses. [online exhibit] Retrieved June, 2004 fromhttp://americanhistorv2.si.edu/costume/ .
An online exhibit which allows students to examine women’s dresses of the Early Republic . In addition, there are photos of dress styles of other periods and students are able to compare the costuming of the period with other styles in American History.
Smithsonian National Museum of American History, (n.d.). Within These Walls. [online exhibit] Retrieved June, 2004 fromhttp://americanhistorv.si.edu/house/default.asp.
A virtual tour of a specific house in Ipswich , Massachusetts and 5 families that have lived in it from 1757-1945. This is an EXCELLENT source of information which allows students to examine specific periods of American history (including the Dodge family, 1777-1789), the primary source artifacts, and the lifestyle of the family.
University of Groningen , Netherlands , (2003). From Revolution to Reconstruction and What Happened Afterwards. Documents. Retrieved June, 2004 fromhttp://odur.let.rug.nl/-usa/D/ .
An excellent resource site for important documents pertaining to the time period. Each document is linked to an online text of the document. Students can use this site to easily reference the documents for further analysis and/or research.
University of Virginia Geospatial and Statistical Data Center . (1998) United States Historical Census Data Browser. University of Virginia . Retrieved June, 2004 from http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/histcensus/
This is an online Census browser that allows students to search for specific demographic information of the period. Students select a census date (ie; 1790), then select the data they wish to see. Although data is not as diverse for the earlier periods, students are still able to select population information such as age groups, free whites, slave populations, etc. The resulting information is broken down by state/region. An EXCELLENT source for student research on any American time period.
Purcell, Sarah. J., (2004). Facts on File: The Farly National Period U.S. : Facts on. File, Inc.
This is a brand new teaching resource and I was unable to evaluate it at this time. However, based on the historical prestige of the Facts on File materials, I have no doubt that this set of materials would be – of value to history teachers of the Early National Period. Following is the publishers description of the materials: The Early National Periodexamines the transformation of the fledgling American republic after the conclusion of the Revolutionary War in 1783 into a hearty and rapidly expanding nation by 1828. Each chapter in The Early National Period features a historical narrative that provides an overview, a chronology, and eyewitness testimonies. From George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Meriwether Lewis to the many ordinary men and women-of all ethnic groups-who left their marks on the country, many first-hand accounts from political leaders, inventors, and social commentators have been included in this exceptional Eyewitness History volume. Recent insights about the importance of race and women’s history in the new nation, excerpts of primary source documents, and capsule biographies of key figures give readers a comprehensive and inclusive understanding of the period. Excerpts from documents such as the Treaty of Paris, the Northwest Ordinance, the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, the Louisiana Purchase, the Sedition Act, and the Virginia Resolutions are paired with biographies of more than 30 key figures, 7 maps, reference notes, a bibliography, an index, and more than 90 black and-white photographs.