By Julie Bohman
Brewster and Buerge, ed. Washingtonians. Seattle: Sasquatch Books, 1988.
This book includes a brief description of the Hanford location and why that site was chosen. It is included in this bibliography because it puts the development of the site in the context of the Cold War and also as an economic force in Washington State. The readability and concise description of Hanford makes it a good student research source. The Cold War was over before students of today were even born, so they have no memory of the feelings involved during the time of the nuclear arms race.
Crawford-Brown, Douglas. “Radiation.” World Book. ed. 2003.
This article gives helpful background on what radiation is, the different sources of radiation and the effects of it on people. Students should at least skim this article when researching nuclear waste.
Gerber, Michelle Stenehjem. On the Home Front. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.
This is an extremely useful resource for teacher background as well as for student research. The reading level is about 8th grade. /There are maps, illustrations and photographs as well as notes on abbreviations used for document sources. There is a glossary of technical terms, acronyms and abbreviations and an index. The numerous subheadings throughout the text serve to guide the search for specific information. This is a comprehensive history of Hanford, from the earliest beginnings, the geology and natural resources to the environmental problems caused by the activities of the Hanford Engineer Works (the original name for the Hanford Site). Many of the sources used to write this book were previously classified documents.
Green, Michael K., and Laurie Winn Carlson. Washington in the Pacific Northwest. Salt Lake City: Gibbs-Smith, 2002.
Hanford is discussed in a few places in various contexts such as the development of the atom bomb, its impact on community, the Cold War, Civil Rights and the waste problems it created. A nice map of Washington State illustrates the location of Hanford on the Columbia River. There is a photograph of the waste storage tanks under construction.
“Harry S. Truman: Announcement of the Dropping of an Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima .” The Annals of America 1976: 334-336.
Here is the speech given by President Harry Truman announcing the dropping of an atomic bomb on Hiroshima , reprinted from the Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States : Harry S. Truman, Containing the Public Messages, Speeches, and Statements of the president, April 12 to December 31, 1945, Washington , 1961, pp. 197200. This section gives a background sketch of the decision making process involved in the command to use the bomb. The speech itself is useful for facilitating the understanding of the reason for its development and use. In the study of Handford’s environmental problems, it is necessary to understand the reason for its existence in the first place.
Kuhn, George. “Nuclear Weapon.” World Book. ed. 2003.
In order to better understand the “big picture”, students should use an encyclopedia to get an overview of the broader subject of their topic. This article explains very briefly the history of nuclear weapons and how they work and their effects. Some of the different types of nuclear weapons are illustrated in simple, clearly labeled diagrams. There are photographs of a blast as well as Hiroshima and Nagasaki after the bombs were dropped.
“Nuclear Reactor.” How It Works: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. ed. 1978.
The illustrations and diagrams are wonderful. Even though the copyright date is a bit dated, the text is helpful for background on the development of nuclear plants.
“A Guide to the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study Final Report.” 22 May 2004. CDCHanford brochure ver2.qxd. Center for Disease Control. 24 Jun 2004http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/hanford/htdsweb/pdf/cdchanford guide.pdf
This 29 page pamphlet provides a quick, readable yet thorough synopsis of the scientific research study coordinated by the Center for Disease Control. There is an overview, an explanation of how the study was conducted, the timeline and the results. One section is all about thyroid disease. Another lists public involvement and the scientific reviews. The entire HTDS research team is described by background and credentials. There are lists of other information sources along with illustrations and graphs to aid in understanding the study. This is written at about a 6 t” grade reading level, making it a top choice for a student research project. The information can be trusted because of who the organization is.
“Environmental Management: Making Accelerated Cleanup a Reality.” U.S. Department of Energy. 29 Jun 2004http://www.em.doe.gov/doe/em/frontdoor/0,2195,14763,00.html.
Several links from this site would be useful for teacher and student research. Among the most valuable are the pages about environmental management, laws and regulations, resources, publications and the interactive state information. When Washington state is chosen from the drop down menu, there are links to information about the cleanup reform initiative, and links to the Department of Ecology and the Fish and Wildlife Service. Tabs across the top of the homepage reveal quick access to current issues and press releases.
“Protecting the Columbia River : A National Treasure.” Office of River Protection. Department of Energy. 29 Jun 2004 <http://www.hanford.gov/orp/>.
This is a very user friendly site with photographs and related links. The “about us” page has their mission and vision for the clean up of the Columbia River . There is a link to Hanford home page as well as BNI- Waste Treatment Plant. A list of key information and objectives would provide answers to many student research questions such as who is this organization and what do they do?
“Groundwater at the Hanford Site.” 29 Jun 2004. Hanford Site Groundwater Remediation Project. Department of Energy. 29 Jun 2004 <http://www.hanford.gov/cp/gpp/>.
There is an introductory paragraph explaining the mission of this program. The link for frequently asked questions is particularly helpful in answering many student generated research questions. This is a very informative site for teacher and student research.
Morrision, Ron. “Tri-Party Agreement.” 25 Jun 2003. Department of Energy. 29 Jun 2004 <http://www.hanford.gov/tpa/tpahome.htm>.
The only useful part in terms of readability is the home page summary statement about the three government offices, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Washington Department of Ecology involved in the Hanford site clean up agreement. Everything else is too technical for most students. There is value in having students go to this site to learn of this agreement to increase their awareness of cooperating agencies.
“Nuclear Waste Program.” Washington State Department of Ecology. 29 Jun 2004 <http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/nwp/>.
This site actively seeks public interaction. There is a link for teachers and students, making this an excellent source for student research. Among the top links for a research project on Hanford environmental problems are: “Environmental Information” and “Nuclear Waste”.
Nuclear Safety Division. 23 Jun 2004. Oregon Department of Energy. 29 Jun 2004 <http://www.energy.state.or.us/nucsafe/nuesafe.htm>.
Students could compare this website with the Washington State Department of Ecology, U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Department of Environmental Protection websites. There is a technical review of the Hanford cleanup as well as information on the safe transport of radioactive material. What is different about this site is the Emergency preparedness for a nuclear accident link. Another special feature is a streaming video regarding the clean up at Hanford , called “Protecting the Columbia River “. There is a person’s name and phone number to contact for more information.
“ Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: delivering breakthrough science and technology.” Department of Energy. 29 Jun 2004 <http://www.pnl.gov>.
The home page announces their supercomputer, sure to grab the attention on middle school students. The other links demonstrate a desire to connect with the public. There are links about the lab, science and technology, user facilities, news and publications, education programs and links/resources. Students might even get ideas for future career choices from this site while researching about the environment problems of Hanford .
National Academies: advisors to the nation on science, engineering and medicine. National Academy of Sciences. 29 Jun 2004 <http://www.nas.edu>.
This is a very technical, difficult to read site that might be used for teacher background, but probably not for most students. A search on Hanford cleanup yielded a list of very specific issues such a spent rods, etc. only for the very serious, advanced student.
The RadioActivist Campaign. The RadioActivist Campaign. 29 Jun 2004 <http://www.radioactivist.org>.
This is a good example of public participation in a community concern. Not only is it relevant to the study of Hanford environmental problems, it shows students that individual effort as part of a group like this can be a very effective change agent.
Protecting the Columbia River . Columbia River Keeper. 29 Jun 2004 <http://www.columbiariverkeeper.org>.
Here is another example of an effective citizen’s group working for the benefit of the entire community. An outline of the environmental problems created by Hanford is given. The organization’s work and progress is related as well as a plea for others to become involved.
Heart of America Northwest. 29 Jun 2004 <http://www.heartofamericanorthwest.org/index_page.html>.
Hear of America is another grassroots organization. The look and feel of the website is much more “militant” than the Columbia River Keeper website. Students could compare the two websites/organizations and give reasons they would or wouldn’t join each of them (if time, money, location weren’t issues).
The following videos have been selected for this bibliography from the U.S. Department of Energy Video Archive and Live Broadcasting web site:http://www.hanford.gov/video/archives.cfm
Five Decades of Hanford Plutonium Production. This video documents the history of plutonium production. There is live action, photographs and animation to convey the information presented. It is 27:46 minutes in length. June 1997.
Accelerating Hanford Cleanup. This 15:26 minute video explains the DOE plan developed cooperatively between Hanford contractors and state and federal regulators to clean up the environment with as few risks to people as possible. January 2003.
The Office of River Protection. The role of the office of River Protection in the clean up from the Hanford site. 7:30 minutes. June 2000.
Protecting the Columbia River. The Hanford cleanup project is explained along with ways to prevent pollution to the environment and the Columbia River . 9:07 minutes. Feb. 2000.
Waste, Receiving and Processing Facility. The waste, receiving and processing facility is explained in terms of purpose, function and its future. 8:40 minutes. January 1999.
These videos were selected for students to watch together in the classroom. The criteria used in choosing these titles included: interest level, time frame, suitability to discussion. They all offer an effective method of teaching basic knowledge about Hanford ‘s environmental problems.
Alvarez, Robert. “The Legacy of Hanford .” The Nation 18 Aug. 2003: 31.
Specific health hazards are listed as well as the Department of Energy’s proposal to rename the waste material as “incidental”. Some of the technologies for clean up are included, such as verification, the conversion of wastes into glass logs. This would be useful for students doing research on Hanford ‘s environmental problems even though the reading level is about grade. They could list the problems and some of the solutions found in this article.
Bernton, Hal . “State Review Criticizes oversight at Hanford .” The Seattle Times 11 May 2004, Fourth Edition ed.: B1.
This article could answer student research question like: How are materials handled currently? And Who is in charge of overseeing the Hanford cleanup?
Dininny, Shannon. “ Hanford ‘s spent fuel transferred to K West.” The Spokesman-Review. 2 July 2004, B2.
The spent nuclear rods that have been in underwater storage have all been moved to an approved site. The tanks were built in the 1950’s as temporary. The maximum time for intended use was 20 years. They have been leaking radioactive material into the ground for quite some time.
Dininny, Shannon. “State Rebuffs U.S. Over Hanford Cleanup of Radioactive Water.” Columbian 15 May 2004, C3.
Students could answer the questions: what is the argument? Who do you agree with? Why?
Dorn Steele, Karen. “ Hanford ‘s Risks Increase Due to Delays EPA Audit Says Regulators Fail to Enforce Deadlines, Adding Years to Cleanup Project.” Spokesman Review 9 July 2000, Spokane edition ed.: Al.
Possible discussion questions could include: Who are the people involved in the clean up? Who does what? What are the cleanup problems?
Dorn Steele, Karen. “N-Waste Tomb Should Open in Stages; Report Urges Caution to Avoid Catastrophe at Yucca Mountain .” Spokesman Review 11 February 2003, Spokane edition ed.: B6
Possible discussion questions: What are the issues? What are the proposed solutions? Who wants what?
, . “Hazwaste: Bubble, Bubble Toil & Trouble.” Waste Treatment Technology News 01 June 2000.
Written at a college level, this article has good information for the teacher who is doing a unit on Hanford environmental problems. It outlines the problems with the underground waste storage tanks along with current studies involving the bubbles that form in them.
, . “Hell on Wheels: Citizens resist plan to dump the nation’s nuclear waste problems on Hanford .” Cascadia Times Winter 2004
A good example of a citizens group making a difference. Students will benefit by the realization that individuals can make significant contributions to society by working together.
Koberstein, Paul. “The Sacrifice Zone: Hanford ‘s Endless Assault on the Columbia River .” Cascadia Times Winter 2004.
The voice of this article is in direct contrast to the government officials who say the clean up is going great. A spokesman from the Columbia Riverkeeper says government secrecy and deception is nothing new. The article includes helpful diagrams and computer images to illustrate the problems. The reading level is appropriate for 7/8th graders and up, making this an excellent research source.
, . “Senate Bill is a Bad Sign for Hanford Cleanup.” The News Tribune 11 June 2004, B6.
Is this fact or opinion? Why? Compare this article with the Columbian dated July 10, 2003.
Wald, Matthew L.. “Deal for Radioactive Waste Cleanup Hits Snag on Cost.” The New York Times 27 April 2000, C4.
Students can view Hanford ‘s environmental problems from a national perspective. Information about the British company the Department of Energy is interesting and involves business negotiations that students might not otherwise notice.
Wiley, John K.. “Nuclear Sludge Creates Costly Cleanup Problem.” Columbian 10 July 2003, C2.
Fact or opinion? Why? Compare to the News Tribune dated 6-11-04. Discussion questions could include: Who are the agencies involved in the Hanford environmental cleanup? What are the motives for each perspective on this issue? How is the cleanup funded?
Fiction Books ( related to nuclear waste, radiation, nuclear war, etc.)
- Alten, Steve. Goliath. NY: Forge, 2002.
- Anderson, Kevin. Ground Zero. NY: Harper Prism, 1995.
- Breeze, Paul. In Harm’s Way. NY: St. Martin ‘s Press, 1995.
- Brown, Dale. Plan of Attack. NY: Morrow, 2004.
- Buff, Joe. Tidal Rip. NY: W. Morrow, 2003.
- Bunn, T. Davis. Riders of the Pale Horse. Minneapolis , Minn : Bethany House, 2002.
- Clancy, Tom. The Hunt for Red October. NY: Berkley Books, 1999.
- Collins, Larry. The Road to Armageddon. Beverly Hills , CA : New Millennium Entertainment, Inc., 2003.
- Coonts, Stephen. America : a Jake Grafton novel. NY: St. Martin ‘s Press, 2001.
- Coonts, Stephen. Fortunes of War. NY: St. Martin ‘s Press, 1998.
- Coonts, Stephen. Liberty . NY: St. Martin ‘s Press, 2003. Coyle, Harold. Dead Hand. NY: Forge, 2001.
- Dow, Rosey. Betrayed: a novel. Uhrichville , Ohio : Promise Books, 2001.
- Frank, Pat. Alas, Babylon . NY: Perennial Classics, 1999.
- Freemantle, Brian. Bomb Grade. NY: St. Martin ‘s Press, 1997.
- Granger, Bill. Burning the Apostle. NY: Warner Books, 1993.
- Hagberg, David. By the Dawn’s Early Light. NY: Forge, 2003
- Hesse, Karen. Phoenix Rising. NY: Holt, 1994.
- Hoban, Russell. Riddley Walker . Bloomington : Indiana Univ. press, 1998.
- Horowitz, Anthony. The Skeleton Key. NY: Philomel Books, 2003.
- Lund, Gerald N. The Alliance . Salt Lake City , Utah : Bookcraft, 2000.
- North, Oliver. The Jericho Sanction: a novel. Nashville , TN : Broadman and Holman, 2003.
- O’Brien, Robert C. Z for Zachariah. NY: Atheneum, 1974.
- Pausewang, Gudrun. Fall-out. NY: Viking, 1994.
- Robinson, Patrick. Kilo Class. NY: HarperCollins Pub, 1998.
- Robinson, Patrick. Nimitz Class. NY: HarperCollins, 1997.
- Shute, Nevil. On the Beach. NY: W. Morrow, 1957.
- Stewart, Chris. Shattered Bone. NY: M.Evans & Co, 1997.
- Thoene, Jake. Shaiton’s Fire. Wheaton , Ill. : Tyndale House, 2002.
- Thurlo, Aimee. Tracking Bear. NY: Forge, 2003.
- Wager, Walter H. Kelly’s People. NY: Tom Doherty Associates, 2002.
- Wenner, Kate. Dancing with Einstein. NY: Scribner, 2004.